郑州朗阁>雅思考试>【雅思培训】雅思托福写作,万事“开头”难??

【雅思培训】雅思托福写作,万事“开头”难??

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018-07-03 09:54:02.000
  • 编辑:郑州朗阁

很多学生在进行习作练习中发现,有时候文章的主体段落有思路和内容展开,但在开头段却不知道具体应该怎么进行了。有句话叫“万事开头难”,概括这种困境最恰当不过了,今天给大家介绍几种常用的开头段写法。

 

很多学生在进行习作练习中发现,有时候文章的主体段落有思路和内容展开,但在开头段却不知道具体应该怎么进行了。有句话叫“万事开头难”,概括这种困境最恰当不过了,今天给大家介绍几种常用的开头段写法。

 

在开始内容之前,首先要给大家”科普“下基本概念。

如果大家想要写好议论文, 我觉得首先大家要弄清楚以下两个概念:主观,and 客观,这对议论文而言非常重要。

 

1 主观

百度上的概念:”通常语境中的主观是指人的一种思考方式,与“客观”相反。所谓“主观”就是凭借自己的感情去看待事物,并作结论、决策和行为反应,而不能与其他不同看法的人仔细商讨,称为主观。“ 回到我们所讲的议论文上,主观是THOUGHT/OPINION,是雅思大作文题目和托福独立写作题目中所谓的关于结论或表明态度的表述。

 

雅思中,虽然题目内容较长信息较多,但我们可以通过一些题目中的一些具体措辞来判断某句话是不是个主观性表达,比如think,believe,should 或形容词副词

 

例如:

180113

Some people think employers should not care about the way their employees dress, they should only care about the quality at work.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

又如: 

180210

Some people believe that people who read books can develop more imagination and language skills than those who prefer to watch TV.

 

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

托福中,由于大多数题目的要求是一样的,问你:"Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?"这句话后面往往就跟一句话, 因此肯定是个主观表达,不然不会问你同不同意,比如:

180421 =161210

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

It is difficult for a teacher to be both popular and effective in helping students. 

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 

 

2. 客观

百度百科上的解释:“客观是指不依赖于人的意识而存在的一切事物,主观与客观相反。”如果一定要用单词来“解释”客观概念的话,我首先想到了FACT,除此以外,还可以是background, phenomenon或situation,应该能大致区分主观和客观两个概念了吧?

 

对于雅思大作文题目内容构成上,很有意思的是,也能抓出来一些“套路”。也就是说,有比较固话的结构。大家看看是不是以下这回事?

1 背景

据我观察,雅思大作文的题目内容,无外乎由这三类内容构成,但在具体题目上,根据任务要求(提问方式)的不同,导致具体的题目内容构成可能是以下情况中的一种:

 

情况A: 1+3 (背景+提问)

如:

180106

In many countries, more and more people buy a wider range of household ods like television, microwave oven and rice cooker. (背景句)

Do you think this is a positive or negative development? (提问方式,即任务要求)

 

情况B: 2+3 

如: 

180224

As countries developed, more and more people buy and use their own cars.背景,即fact)

Do you think the advantages of this trend for individuals outweigh its disadvantages for environment? (提问方式,即任务要求)

 

情况C: 1+2+3 

如:

180118

Lectures were used to be a way to teach large number of students, (背景,即fact)but with the technology available for education,(背景)there is no longer (副词频度表达)justification for lectures. (主观表达,即观点)To what extent do you agree or disagree? (提问方式,即任务要求)

又如:

180120

Today people are surrounded by advertising.(背景,即fact)This both affects what people think is important and is a negative impact on people’s lives. (主观表达,即观点)

To what extent do you agree or disagree?(提问方式,即任务要求)

再如:

180203

The restoration of old buildings in major cities in the world costs numerous vernment’s expenditures. (背景,即fact)This money should be used in new housing and road development.(主观表达,即观点)

To what extent do you agree or disagree?(提问方式,即任务要求)

 

因此,理性的区分主观和客观,是进行正确的任务回应的第一步,不能错。

测试下?

180303

In many countries, prison is the common solution to the problem of crime. However, another effective way is to provide people with better education so that they will not become criminals.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

本题属于1+2+3. 如果某同学在intro段落回应说”我不同意监狱是解决犯罪问题的常用方法“,那,这篇文章就不用写了,太外行了。

 

小伙伴还记得这道题目吗?

In some countries an increasing number of people are suffering from health problems as a result of eating too much  fast food. It is therefore necessary for vernment to impose a higher tax on this kind of food.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

有多少同学的观点表达的是”肥胖不仅仅是由于吃太多快餐引起的?” 本题的主观性表达是“It is therefore necessary for vernment to impose a higher tax on this kind of food.”因此大家应该针对这句话发表观点倾向性,表达同意或不同意impose a higher tax on fast food这个measure。

 

铺垫好了,就开始说正事吧。为什么要讲作文题目的构成?因为:开头段的内容,和上述所讲的大作文题目构成,一毛一样!

也即是说, 我们也可以通过上述的1+3,2+3, 或1+2+3的方式来写开头段!

 

构成A:

 1+3: 背景句+对提问方式的回应

构成B:

2+3: 观点改写+ 对提问方式的回应

构成C:

1+2+3 : 背景句 +观点改写+ 对提问方式的回应

随便找个题目把!

180630

An increasing  number of people are changing their careers during their working time. 

What causes this trend ? Is it a positive or negative development? (题目属于1+3模式)

 

1+3: 

也就是是想说的第一种开头段写法: 背景法

适用于雅思,托福等大多数学术性考试。

常用指数: 5颗星

推荐指数:3颗星

特点:中规中矩

 

就题目的话题性,给出现阶段或目前正在进行或存在的现象或状态的说明性表述。

由于180630题目本身就是一个背景+问题,因此我们需要做的就是改写就行, 如:Currently, there are a growing number of employees who/that are altering their careers, which arouses a heatedly debatable issue. (题目改写) And this essay will briefly analyze/ discuss the causes of this phenomenon/ tendency as well as whether it is a positive development.(回应题目提问方式)

(TIP: 划线句型可直接积累)

 

同样适用于托福独立写作:

180623

Some people prefer to do exercise alone while others would like group sports. Which do you prefer?

由于托福题目短小精悍多数只有主观性表达,故需要我们自行添加背景句(也可省略,因为可以采用2+3模式)。 本道题目是有关sports的话题,建议大家直接拿话题性核心词汇进行加工背景句更能够保证与题目的关联程度!

如: 

Currently people are busy with their work while most of them are unaware of the significance of doing sports. (背景)Once they have time to do it, they prefer to exercise without companion. (背景)However, I think it is better to do sports in groups.(观点)

 

常用背景句展开句型:

1.with 类

? With the fast/unexpected development/progress/ promotion/ widespread use of sth, …

? With sth. developing /being promoted/ being criticized / becoming increasingly popular, ...

 

2.   growing 类

? Nowadays/ Currently/ presently, there is a growing concern over sth, which …

? Nowadays, sth. is drawing /arousing/ leading to/ causing increasing concern among sb.

? Nowadays, people are becoming increasingly concerned /worried / delighted over the widespread use of / the popularity of ...

 

3. dilemma or controversy 类

? It/ Sth. has always been a dilemma/ controversy for … to do sth.

? It is never an easy task for sb to do sth

? Whether we should do A. or B has never been an easy choice. As a matter of fact, people are easily swayed by many other factors, such as ...

 

方法2: 关键词法

适用于雅思,托福等大多数学术性考试。

常用指数: 3颗星

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